Electronics Reports

Implementing Extended Producer Responsibility Legislation: A Multi-stakeholder Case Analysis (PDF)

Gui, L., Atasu, A., Ergun, Ö. and Toktay, L. B. (2013), Implementing Extended Producer Responsibility Legislation. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 17: 262–276.

Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Recycled-Content Products: California Purchasing Guidelines for Carpet, Single-Use Alkaline Batteries, Monitors, Televisions, Laptops, and Tablet Computers

This case study from CalRecycle (the California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery) examines four products (carpet, single-use alkaline batteries, monitors and TVs, and laptops and tablet computers), to compare greenhouse gas emissions from recycled content products with those made from virgin materials. May 2012.

New York State’s Producer Responsibility Law for Electronics: Reflecting on the First Year (PDF)

Prepared by PSI for the Natural Resources Defense Council. Interim Report, March 29, 2012.

NWPSCPreliminary Analysis of E-Cycle Programs in Washington and Oregon

In March 2010, the Northwest Product Stewardship Council produced a report (PDF) covering the first nine months of operation of the E-Cycle Programs in Washington and Oregon. This report explores the preliminary results of the E-Cycle Washington and Oregon E-Cycles programs that began providing services on January 1, 2009.

The report provides an overview of the program requirements, a summary of the statutory and policy differences between the Oregon and Washington programs, a summary of the experiences in each program that draw from an analysis of quantified results (e.g., the number of tons collected and recycled, number of collection locations) and interviews of 38 stakeholders that were involved in program implementation.

NWPSCConsiderations for Local Communities, Related to the Collection of Used Electronics (PDF)

Many citizens look to their local government agencies to offer electronics recycling collection programs. The NWPSC developed guidelines for local governments to consider if are thinking about collecting electronics for recycling. These guidelines focus on short-term solutions that will encourage long-term product stewardship programs involving electronics manufacturers, retailers, recyclers, and consumers.

Greening Consumer Electronics: Apple, Sony Ericsson and Major Suppliers are Leading the Industry in Removing Chlorine and Bromine Based Substances from Electronic Products

Oct. 6, 2009 research report from Clean Production Action (CPA) and ChemSec (International Chemical Secretariat) on companies leading the electronics industry by moving away from chemicals that can lead to health and environmental problems.

Electronic Waste: EPA Needs to Better Control Harmful U.S. Exports through Stronger Enforcement and More Comprehensive Regulation (PDF)

United States Government Accountability Office. August 2008.

Flat Panel Displays: End of Life Management Report (PDF)

King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks, Solid Waste Division. April 2008. 

Report on E-Waste Recycling Programs and Policy Options (PDF)

State of Pennsylvania Joint Legislative Air and Water Control and Conservation Committee. June 2008. 

CRS Report for Congress, Managing Electronic Waste: An Analysis of State E-Waste Legislation

Congressional Research Service. February 6, 2008 (updated). 

Spokane Electronics Reuse and Recycling Study (Word)

Prepared by Gracestone, Inc. and Eco Stewardship Strategies for the Spokane Regional Solidwaste system. March 30, 2007. 

NWPSCBusiness Plan and Final Report for an Electronic Product Stewardship Third Party Organization (TPO) in the Pacific Northwest

The goal of this pilot project was to explore the feasibility of creating a private "Third Party Organization" (TPO) that would function to implement an electronics collection and recycling program in the states of Washington and Oregon. The private industry-managed TPO would serve the interests of the states and the product manufacturers.

The April 2006 report provides recommendations for establishing a TPO, the organizational structure, the costs to set up and implement an electronics recycling program in multiple states and provides an analysis of the legal parameters necessary to operate a TPO in a multiple states.

The project was conceived and organized by members of the Northwest Product Stewardship Council and was led by a Steering Committee comprised of representatives from eight electronics manufacturers.

Oregon Electronic Scrap Baseline Survey (PDF)

Prepared by Eco Stewardship Strategies with Gracestone, Inc. October 31, 2006. 

Implementing and Financing an Electronic Product Collection, Recycling and Reuse Program For Washington State

Washington State Department of Ecology. January 2006. 

Position on the Need for a National Electronics Management System to Handle Consumer Electronics at their End-of-Life (PDF)

Consumer Electronics Retailers Coalition (CERC). 2006.

IT Product Recycling: A Product Stewardship Solution (PDF)

Hewlett-Packard Company. 2005.

Intentions paper: Adding a Schedule for Electronic Equipment to the British Columbia Recycling Regulation (PDF)

British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Environmental Protection Division. October 2005. 

White Paper on Electronics End-of-Life Management: Implementation of an ARF-Financed and Stakeholder-Managed System (PDF)

Electronic Manufacturers’ Coalition for Responsible Recycling. February 2005. 
Recommendations which describe an ARF-financed recycling system for electronic products that is managed by a shared responsibility framework and designed for state implementation. 

NWPSCGood Guys Electronics Take-back Pilot Project Report

The NWPSC and Good Guys electronics stores teamed up with electronics manufacturers JVC, Philips, Pioneer, Samsung, Sharp and Sony to take back TVs for recycling from residents in King, Snohomish and Pierce Counties.

The report summarizes the results of the project which ran from July 8 through August 7, 2004. During this time, customers could bring their TVs to the Good Guys stores in Bellevue, Lynnwood, Puyallup and Tukwila where they were charged $10 to recycle standard TVs and $25 for consoles. In return, they received a 10% discount coupon good on the purchase of products sold by participating manufacturers. The program was designed using a product stewardship model where electronics manufacturers, retailers, consumers and local governments contributed to the funding and implementation of the pilot program.

This project was funded in part by a grant from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and was a project of the EPA’s Plug-In To eCycling Campaign. The program was administered by the Northwest Product Stewardship Council governments King County, Snohomish County, City of Seattle, and City of Tacoma.

Brominated Flame Retardants in Dust on Computers: The Case for Safer Chemicals and Better Computer Design

Clean Production Action. June 2004.

NWPSCElectronic Waste Legislation and Economic Development (PDF)

2004 paper by the Northwest Product Stewardship Council, explains the benefits to Washington’s economy of HB 1942 (2003-2004), which would have required electronics manufacturers to plan for and finance collection and recycling systems for computers, cell phones, and televisions but did not pass.

Best Management Practices for Electronic Waste

Contractor's Report to the Board, prepared by Santa Clara County Department of Environmental Health for the California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB - predecessor to CalRecycle).
This report involved assessing local government concerns and collecting available information on proper management of e-waste through research of CIWMB resources. The project also included nationally recognized organizations involved in e-waste management. The best management practices guide for e-waste was designed to assist local government in the considerations and decisions needed for program planning and implementation, with emphasis on environmentally sound management and due diligence to ensure proper recycling. The best management practices for e-waste are changing on a continual basis and will evolve over time. This e-waste best management guide represents a snapshot to assist local government with implementing new programs, and it needs to be continually updated based on lessons learned.
April 2004.

Comments on "The Effectiveness of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in Controlling Releases of Heavy Metals to the Environment" (PDF)

G. Fred Lee & Associates. March 2004. 
Prepared for the SWANA Applied Research Foundation. Response to a report stating that heavy metals in municipal solid waste landfills do not contribute to groundwater pollution. 

Product Takeback: IBM Position and Recommendations (PDF)

IBM. February 11, 2004.

NSWMA E-Waste Policy.

National Solid Waste Management Association. 2004. 

Summary of the Waste Electronics Consultation Process (PDF)

Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance. 2004. 

NWPSCStudy Tests Usability of Computer “Mail Back” Programs

Snohomish County, a member of the NWPSC Steering Committee, tested several of the electronics “mail back” programs offered by computer manufacturers. The tests were conducted during the month of October 2003 on five manufacturer mail back programs: IBM, HP, Dell, Gateway, and Lexmark.

The Test of Electronics Manufacturer Mail Back Programs Report (PDF) evaluated the following program elements:

  • Ease of getting the information
  • Number of layers/websites it takes to find the information
  • Accuracy of information provided
  • Total time for follow-up to inquiries
  • Cost of recycling & other materials
  • Overall time to complete the recycle or “take-back” process

The report concludes with an overall estimation of the time and effort it would take the average consumer to recycle a computer, computer monitor or other electronics equipment using one of these programs.

NWPSCE-Waste Generation in Northwest Washington

Seattle Public Utilities, a member of the Northwest Product Stewardship Council, commissioned a report about the state of e-waste in Northwest Washington. The report provides estimates of the quantities of e-waste and the costs associated with starting two e-waste collection facilities in Seattle. Read the executive summary (PDF) or the full report (PDF).

Strategy Report for Electronics Waste Management in Iowa (PDF)

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. November 26, 2003. 

Assessing Base Level of Service for Electronics Collection and Recycling Programs: Seattle-Tacoma Case Study (PDF)

National Electronics Product Stewardship Institute Infrastructure Subgroup. May 2003. 

Southwest Washington Electronic Waste Generation and Processing (PDF)

Clark County Sheriff’s Office and Washington State Jail Industries Board. March 2003. 

Test of Manufacturer Mail-Back Programs (PDF)

Prepared by PRR for Snohomish County Solid Waste Management Division. January 3, 2003. 

State of Electronics in Florida Households: 2003 Residential Household Electronics Survey (PDF)

Prepared by Kessler Consulting, Inc. for Seminole County Environmental Services Department and Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 

Assessment of Electronic Waste Generation, Collection, and Processing in Eastern Washington (PDF)

Prepared by Cascadia Consulting Group for the Washington State Department of Ecology. December 31, 2002. 

Assessment of E-Waste Collection & Processing Issues for the (Portland) Metro Region (PDF)

Prepared by Cascadia Consulting Group and e4partners, inc. for Portland Metro Regional Environmental Management. August 5, 2002. 

Public Opinion Research on Electronics Recycling (PDF)

Prepared by PRR, Inc. and Northwest Research Group, Inc. for Washington Citizens for Resource Conservation. August 2002. 
Results of a King County study regarding residents’ expectations of electronic manufacturers and their willingness to participate in product stewardship. 

Toxic and Hazardous Materials in Electronics: An Environmental Scan of Toxic and Hazardous Materials in IT and Telecom Products and Waste (PDF)

Prepared by Five Winds International for Environment Canada, National Office of Pollution Prevention and Industry Canada, Computers for Schools Program. October 2001. 

Obsolete Computers, “Gold Mine,” or High-Tech Trash? Resource Recovery from Recycling (PDF)

US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey. July 2001.

Proposed Financing Systems for E-Waste Recycling Programs

The State of Washington and the National Electronics Product Stewardship Initiative (NEPSI) are proposing various systems for financing electronics collection and recycling programs. The following document and charts, developed by Snohomish County, provide explanations of how these systems might work: